Grammar 4: Verb Tense

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2015年9月6日
Grammar 5: Verb Tense
2016年2月1日

Grammar 4: Verb Tense

verb tense:时态

动词的时态概述

作谓语的动词用来表示动作(情况)发生时间的各种形式称为时态。英语的时态,对中国学生来说,是较困难的一个语法项目。原因是,汉语动词没有时态形式的变化。也就是说,汉语动词不是用词形的变化,而是用特定的词语,如“现在、将来、过去、正在、经常、着、了、过、已经”等来说明一个动作发生的时间,而动词本身并无变化。在英语中,则用动词本身的词形变化或助动词来表示动作的时间。请比较:

He goes to school everyday.他每天上学。
He has gone to school.他已经上学去了。
He is attending evening classes in computer studies.他在夜校上电脑课。
He went school yesterday.他昨天上学去了。
He will go to school tomorrow.他明天要去上学。

Verb tense tells you when the action happens. There are three main verb tenses: present, past, and future. Each main tense is divided into simple, progressive, perfect, and perfect progressive tenses.

动词告诉你什么时候动作的发生,有三个主要的动词时态,现在,过去和将来。每个时态主要分为一般时,进行时和完成的时态,以及完成进行时

Simple Present 一般现在时

Simple tense:一般时态
Simple Present 一般现在时
FORM:[VERB] + s/es in third person
形式:(动词原形)+s/es的第三人称
 
USE 1 Repeated Actions
运用1.重复的动作
Use the Simple Present to express the idea that an action is repeated or usual. The action can be a habit, a hobby, a daily event, a scheduled event or something that often happens.
使用一般现在时态来表达一个重复的动作或通常的想法。这种行为可以是一种习惯,一种爱好,一种日常活动,一个经常发生的事件或事情。
Examples: 例如:
I play tennis. 我打网球 
 
USE 2 Facts or Generalizations
运用2:事实或者概括
The Simple Present can also indicate the speaker believes that a fact was true before, is true now, and will be true in the future.
一般现在时也可以表明说话者认为,事实是真实的,现在是真实的,将来也会是真实的。 Examples: 例如: Cats like milk. 猫喜欢牛奶
 
USE 3 Scheduled Events in the Near Future
运用3, 在不久的将来预定的事情
Speakers occasionally use Simple Present to talk about scheduled events in the near future. 在不久的将来,演讲者会使用简单的演讲来谈论预定的事件。
Examples: 例如:
The train leaves tonight at 6 PM.
火车今晚6点离开 
 
USE 4 Now (Non-Continuous Verbs)
运用4.现在(非连续动词)
Speakers sometimes use the Simple Present to express the idea that an action is happening or is not happening now.
说话者有时使用一般现在时来表达一个对正在发生行动或正在发生的事的想法。
Examples: He needs help right now.
例如:他现在就需要帮助。

Simple Past 一般过去式

Simple tense:一般时态
Simple Past 一般过去式
FORM: [VERB+ed] or irregular verbs
形式:(动词+ed)或者是不规则动词
USE 1 Completed Action in the Past
运用1,过去完成的动作
Use the Simple Past to express the idea that an action started and finished at a specific time in the past.
用一般过去时来表达一个动作开始并完成的想法 具体时间在过去。
Examples: 例如:
I saw a movie yesterday.
昨天我看了一部电影
 
USE 2 Duration in Past
运用2.过去持续的时间
The Simple Past can be used with a duration which starts and stops in the past.
一般过去式可以用在过去的某一个持续的时间的开始和停止。
Examples: 例如:
I lived in Brazil for two years.
我在巴西住了2年
 
USE 3 Habits in the Past
运用3 过去的习惯
The Simple Past can also be used to describe a habit which stopped in the past. It can have the same meaning as "used to."
一般过去式可以用来描述过去的习惯,他和“used to”是同一个意思
Examples:
例如:
I studied French when I was a child.
当我还是孩子的时候,我学过法语。
 
USE 4 Past Facts or Generalizations
运用4 过去的事实或者概括
The Simple Past can also be used to describe past facts or generalizations which are no longer true.
一般过去式也可以用来描述过去的事实或者概括,而且现在不再是真实的
Examples: 例如:
He didn't like tomatoes before.
他以前不喜欢吃西红柿。

Simple Future 一般将来时

Simple tense:一般时态
Simple Future 一般将来时
Simple Future has two different forms in English: "will" and "be going to." Although the two forms can sometimes be used interchangeably, they often express two very different meaning Both "will" and "be going to" refer to a specific time in the future.
一般将来时在英语中有2种不同形式,“will"和”be going to"即使2者之间有时可以互换使用,他们经常表达2个不同的意思,双方:will"和“be going to" 是指在未来的某一个具体的时间。
FORM Will:[will + verb]
形式:Will: ( will +动词原形)
Examples: 例如
You will help him later. 你以后会帮助他
 
FORM Be Going To:[am/is/are + going to + verb]
形式:Be Going To:[am/is/are + going to + 动词原形]
Examples: 例如:
You are going to meet Jane tonight.
今晚你要去见简
 
USE 1 "Will" to Express a Voluntary Action
运用1“will"表示一个自愿的动作 "Will"
often suggests that a speaker will do something voluntarily.
“will"经常暗示一个说话者会主动做些事情
 
USE 2 "Will" to Express a Promise
运用2:“will”用来表达一个承诺
"Will" is usually used in promises.
“will”通常用于承诺
Examples: 例如:
I will call you when I arrive. 当我到达时,我会打电话给你。
 
USE 3 "Be going to" to Express a Plan
运用3:"Be going to" 表达一个计划
"Be going to" expresses that something is a plan.
"Be going to" 表示某事是一个计划
 
例子:
run
I run a marathon twice a year. (present)
I ran a marathon last year. (past)
I will run a marathon next year. (future)
 
eat
I eat lunch in my office.
I ate lunch an hour ago.
I will eat lunch in one hour.
 
see
I see a movie once a week.
I saw a movie yesterday.
I will see a movie tomorrow.

Exercise 练习

[Quiz 10.1] Fill in the blanks with appropriate verb forms.

(在括号中填入正确的动词形式)

1)I( ) a song at the concert yesterday.

2)He ( ) a letter to his girlfriend tomorrow.

3)I( ) to the library to borrow some books this weekend.

View answers:查看答案

View answers:查看答案
1) sang 2) will write 3) will go

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