简介

今天是英语语法的第二课,我们来了解英语语法中的关于名词的一些知识。
学习内容包括五部分。
第一部分:课程录像
第二部分:回想
第三部分:测试
第四部分:学习材料
第五部分:附加材料


使用说明:你如果已经熟悉这方面的语法知识,可以直接做测试。否则的话可以先观看视频学习,通过回想加深记忆后再做相应的测试,如果答对的题数少于一半,请继续做后面的练习。第四部分提供文字学习材料,需要更详细的了解可以阅读。

第一部分:视频课程

第二部分:复习

观看学习视频后,请根据下面的图在你的笔记本上画出并列出今天所学习的内容。最好能够自己给自己讲解一下关于名词的基本知识。这样可以加深你的记忆。
 

第三部分:测试

测试:请完成下面关于名词的测试并报告你的成绩。你也可以点下面“-”阅读答案解释


请输入你的名字,完成下面关于名词的测试

名字
1. I found her sitting in the corner, reading _____ newspaper, with _____ in her eyes.
2. Her father works as a ______ in a hotel and her mother a ______ in a private company. 
3. “Why couldn’t they meet us at five o’clock?” “Because they were delayed by _______.”
4. In fact, _______ one cause that leads to the problem.
5. By all _______, you must try every _______ to help him.
6. Jim is ______ person, and everyone is willing to be ______ with him.
7. We already have ______ pencils, but we need two ______ pens.
8. She raised her finger to her lips as _____ for silence.
9. “May I take your order now?” “We’d like three black _______ and two green _______.”
10. _____ is a good form of exercise for both young and old.
11. I keep medicines on the top shelf, out of the children’s ________. 
12. Don’t leave matches or cigarettes on the table within ________ of little children.
13. If by any chance someone comes to see me, ask them to leave a ________.
14. We all know that ________ speak louder than words.
15. My parents always let me have my own ________ of living. 
16.The young dancers looked so charming in their beautiful clothes that we took__________pictures of them.
17. If you buy more than ten, they knock 20  pence off_______.
18--Brad was Jane's brother!--_______he reminded me so much of Jane!
19.My _______of this weekend's activity is going out with some good friends.
20. I am sure David will be able to find the library he has a pretty good_______of direction.
21. Bill was doing a lot of physical exercise to build up his_______.
22. She is in a poor_______ of health, which worries her mother much.
23. Mr. Barrette doesn't think that all bad language should be allowed. In his opinion, there are_______that should be  kept up.
24. The village is far away from here indeed. It's_______walk.
25.It took us quite a long time to get there, It was______ journey
25.The______ is just around the corner and  you won't miss it.
27.The little girl asked her mother to buy her a nice pair of______, so her mother went to some ______stores.
28.If you are not yet______,you are forbidden to visit this site.
29. His behavior at the party last night seemed rather______. Many of us were quite surprised.
30.--Carry your______ with you, your money, jewelry, camera and so on.
--OK. Thank you for reminding me.

请把你的测试结果汇报给你的导师,你可以点下面的答案解释去了解错误的原因。



答案解释

答案

1. I found her sitting in the corner, reading _____ newspaper, with _____ in her eyes.
A. a, tear                                                  B. a piece of, tears
C. a, tears                                                 D. a piece of, tear
【陷阱】误选D,许多学生错误地认为,既然news(消息)和 paper(纸)均为不可数名词,那么newspaper(报纸)也应是不可数的;同时认为“眼泪”即“泪水”,“水”不可数,“泪水”和“眼泪”也应该不可数。
【分析】最佳答案为C。newspaper和 tear均为可数名词,它们不仅可以连用不定冠词、可以用复数,而且还可以连用数词。
Her eyes filled with tears. 她热泪盈眶。
She dried her tears with a handkerchief. 她用手帕擦干了眼泪。
The newspapers were full of lies. 报纸上一片谎言。
A newspaper is a publication. 报纸是一种出版物。
顺便说一句,若不是将 newspaper 当作是供阅读或传递信息的一种东西,而只是把它当成一种“纸”来看待,也可用作不可数名词,如:
Wrap it in (a sheet of) newspaper. 把它用张报纸包起来。

2. Her father works as a ______ in a hotel and her mother a ______ in a private company.
A. cooker, typewriter                                 B. cook, typist
C. cooker, typist                                        D. cook, typewriter
【陷阱】误选A,许多同学想当然地认为:cook 用作动词,表示“煮饭”,所以 cooker 应是其相应的名词,表示“煮饭的人”,即“厨师”;type 用作动词,表示“打字”,所以 typewriter 应表示“打字员”。
【分析】而事实是:cook=厨师,cooker=炊具;typist=打字员,typewriter=打字机。即此题正确答案为B。

3. “Why couldn’t they meet us at five o’clock?” “Because they were delayed by ________.”
A. heavy traffic                                              B. heavy traffics
C. crowded traffic                                     D. crowded traffics
【陷阱】B、C、D三项均容易误选。
【分析】对于此题,首先要明确traffic为不可数名词,没有复数形式,故排除B和D。另外,汉语习惯说“交通拥挤”,而英语习惯上却不能用crowded 来修饰 traffic,要表示汉语的“交通拥挤”,英语通常说heavy traffic,即选A。

如下面一题也是选A:
She is not a competent driver and can’t cope with driving in _______.
A. heavy traffic                                              B. heavy traffics
C. crowded traffic                                     D. crowded traffics

4. In fact, _______ one cause that leads to the problem.
A. cattle is                                                B. cattle are
C. cattles are                                             D. the cattles are
【陷阱】此题容易误选A,想当然地认为cattle是单数,并且空格有表单数的one,自然谓语动词用is。
【陷阱】其实,正确答案为B。cattle(牲畜,牛)为集合名词,尽管它不带复数词尾-s,却永远表示复数意义,若用作主语,谓语要用复数。又如:
For this many cattle were killed. 为此宰了不少牲畜。
The prisoners were herded like cattle. 囚犯像牲口一样被赶到一起。
类似地,police(警察),people(人),police(警察),poultry(家禽)等也具有同样用法,即只有单数形式,但却表示复数意义;用作主语时谓语通常也用复数;不与 a(n) 连用,但可与the连用(表示总括意义和特指)。如:
The poultry have been fed. 家禽已经喂过饲料了。
In Britain police do not usually carry guns. 在英国警察通常不带枪。
It annoys me when people forget to say “thank you”. 遇到有人忘记道谢的时候,我就不痛快。

5. By all _______, you must try every _______ to help him.
A. mean, mean                                          B. means, means    
C. means, mean                                         D. mean, means
【陷阱】误选C,认为第一空前有all修饰,故用means,而第二空前有every修饰,故用mean。
【分析】其实,means是一个单复数同形的名词,并且永远带有尾-s。换句话说,在表示“方式”、“方法”时,不存在mean这一形式(mean主要用作动词,表示“意思是”;也可用作名词,表示“中间”、“中庸”)。此题正确答案为C

,by all means为习语,意为“一定”、“尽一切办法”。顺便说一句,means用作主语时,其谓语的数需根据句意来确定。比较:
All possible means have been tried. 所有可能的办法都已经试过了。
Every possible means has been tried. 每种可能的办法都已经试过了。
若句意不能明确地表明主语的单复数,其谓语则用单数或复数均可。如:
Is [Are] there any other means of getting more money? 还有其他什么办法可弄到更多钱吗?

6. Jim is ______ person, and everyone is willing to be ______ with him.
A. so kind a, friends                                  B. so a kind, friends
C. so kind a, friend                                    D. so a kind, friend
【陷阱】误选C或D。认为 friend要用单数。
【分析】其实此题最佳答案为A。so kind a person相当于such a kind person,注意两者中冠词的位置不同。be friends with是习语,意为“与……友好”、“跟……做朋友”,与之同义的类似地还有make friends with。值得说明的

是,这类短语中的名词总是用复数,即使句子主语为单数也是如此。如:
He is friends with me. 他与我是朋友。
He has made friends with everyone here. 他与这儿的每个人交上了朋友。

7. We already have ______ pencils, but we need two ______ pens.
A. dozen of, dozen                                    B. dozens of, dozens
C. dozens of, dozen                                   D. dozens of, dozen of
【陷阱】误选 B。
【分析】此题最佳答案为C。关于dozen的复数是否加词尾-s的问题比较复杂,大致原则是:
(1) 当它与具体数字连用时,既不加复数词尾-s,也不后接介词of。尽管有的词书也有 two dozen of 这样的用例,但这已属过时用法,在考试中应避免,如1992年全国高考有一道单项选择题就认为two dozen of为错误选项:
Shortly after the accident, _____ police were sent to the spot to keep order.
A. dozens of                                             B. dozens       C. dozen of     D. dozen [D]
(2) 当它不与具体数字连用,而是表示不确定的泛指数时,则不仅要加复数词尾-s,而且要后接介词 of,此时可将dozens of(许多,几十)视为习语。如:
I’ve been there dozens of times. 我去过那儿几十次。
She’s got dozens of boy-friends. 她的男朋友很多。
下面一例中的dozens加了复数词尾-s也属为似情况:
Pack them in dozens. 按打装袋吧。
(3) 当与 a few, several 等数目不很具体的词连用时,加不加复数词尾-s均可,但需注意:不加复数词尾-s时,其后的介词of可以省略;加词尾-s时,其后介词 of不能省略。如:
several dozen (of) pencils=several dozens of pencils几打铅笔
注:英语较少使用many dozen的说法,要表示类似意思可用dozens of。
(4) 当它后面的名词受 the, these, those 等特指限定词修饰时,或其后的接的是us, them这样的人称代词时,则此时必须用介词 of。如:
two dozen of these eggs 两打这种鸡蛋
three dozen of them 它们中的3打
注:score, hundred, thousand, million等也具有以上类似用法。


8. She raised her finger to her lips as _____ for silence.
A. an idea                                                 B. a mark
C. a sign                                                   D. a word
【陷阱】容易误选B。
【分析】应选C,sign与mark的区别是:sign 的意思是“迹象”、“征兆”gesture or movement made with the hand, head, etc, used to give information, a command, etc(用手或头等做出示意动作以传递信息或命令等),mark

的意思是 written or printed symbol or figure, line etc made as signor an indication of sth(书写与印刷的符号或图、线等记号)。根据此二词的语义区别以及常识可知答案为C。类似地,下面两题的答案也是C:
(1) Those black clouds are a sure _____ that it’s going to rain.
A. thing                                                   B. mark
C. sign                                                     D. one
(2) Just as a famous Chinese saying goes, a timely heavy snow is a ______ of good harvest next year.
A. mark                                                   B. track
C. sign                                                     D. appearance
但是,下面一题却不能选sign,也不能选mark,而选symbol(象征):
The lion is considered the king of the forest as it is a(n) _____ of courage and power.
A. example                                               B. sign
C. mark                                                    D. symbol
顺便说一句,在近几年的高考中像这类结合词义区别以及语境和生活常识进行考查的试题经常出现,同学们需引起注意。

9. “May I take your order now?” “We’d like three black _______ and two green _______.”
A. coffee, cups of teas                               B. coffees, teas
C. cups of coffee, tea                                 D. cup of coffees, teas
【陷阱】误选C,认为coffee和tea均为不可数名词,不能后加复数词尾-s,从而排除选项A、B、D。
【分析】选B。有的同学认为 coffee 和tea是物质名词,不可数,不能用 three coffees, two teas 这样的表达。其实,coffee既可用作不可数名词,表示“咖啡”这种物质,也可用作可数名词,表示“一杯咖啡”,即在口语中 three

coffees 就等于 three cups of coffee。同样,“三杯茶”既可说成 three cups of tea,也可说成 three teas;“三杯啤酒”既可说成 three glasses of beer,也可说成 three beers。

10. _____ is a good form of exercise for both young and old.
A. Walk                                                   B. Walking
C. The walk                                              D. To walk
【陷阱】容易误选A或D。
【分析】最佳答案为B。分析如下:
(1) 首先,选项D不如选项B佳,因为,不定式通常表示特定的动作,而动名词才表示习惯性的动作。
(2) 尽管walk用作名词时可以表示“散步”,但它是可数名词,指的是一次一次的具体的散步,而不表示抽象意义或泛指意义的“散步”,要表示此义,要用动名词 walking。比较:
How about going for a walk? 出去散散步如何?
Walking does good to your health. 散步对你的健康有益。
类似地,dance 和 dancing 以及 swim 和 swimming 的区别也是一样:
(1) 名词的 dance表示“跳舞”,是可数名词,指的是一次一次的具体的跳舞,而不表示抽象意义或泛指意义的“跳舞”,要表示后者的意思,要用动名词转化来的名词 dancing。比较:
Let’s have a dance. 我们跳曲舞吧。
He is interested in dancing. 他对跳舞感兴趣。
(2) 名词的 swim表示“游泳”,是可数名词,指的是一次一次的具体的游泳,而不表示抽象意义或泛指意义的“游泳”,要表示后者的意思,要用动名词转化来的名词 swimming。比较:
She had a swim every day. 她每天游一会儿泳。
She loves swimming. 她喜欢游泳。


11. I keep medicines on the top shelf, out of the children’s ________.
A. reach  B. hand C. hold   D. place   
【分析】答案选A。因为out of sb’s reach是固定习语,意为“伸手拿不到的、够不着的”。也可说beyond sb’s reach。

12. Don’t leave matches or cigarettes on the table within ________ of little children.
A. hand  B. reachC. space D. distance
【分析】答案选B。因为within sb’s reach是固定习语,意为“伸手拿得到的”。


13. If by any chance someone comes to see me, ask them to leave a ________.
A. message  B. letter C. sentence  D. notice
【分析】答案选A。leave a message(留下口信或便条)也是固定搭配。

14. We all know that ________ speak louder than words.
A. movements  B. performances C. operations  D. actions
【分析】答案选D。Actions speak louder than words. (行动胜过言辞)是谚语。

15. My parents always let me have my own ________ of living.
A. way  B. method C. manner  D. fashion
【分析】答案选A。have one’s own way of doing sth. (有自己做某事的方法)是惯用句式。





16.The young dancers looked so charming in their beautiful clothes that we took__________pictures of them.
A. many of           B. masses of C. the number of      D. a large amount of
命题目的与解题技巧:此题考查表示“许多”的名词修饰语。
【解 析】 many,masses of,a number of,a large amount of 都可以表示“许多的”“大量的”。其中,many,a number of修饰可数名词复数;a large amount of修饰不可数名词;masses of可用于可数、不可数名词前。A项多一

个of;C项the number of指“……的数量”,与题意不符;D项不能修饰复数名词pictures.
【答  案】  B

17. If you buy more than ten, they knock 20  pence off_______.
   A. a price            B. price
   C. the price          D. prices
答案:C  指导:本句译文为:如果你买10个以上,它们的价格可以便宜20便士,本题测试名词和冠词的用法。

18--Brad was Jane's brother!--_______he reminded me so much of Jane!
 A. No doubt           B. Above all
   C. No wonder          D. Of course
答案:C  指导:选项A的意思是:毫无疑问,表示肯定;B的意思是:首先,最重要的是,表示重要性;C的意思是:难怪,表示恍然大悟;D的意思是:当然,当然可以,表示同意。根据上下句的意思,答案选C,表示对原来某现象突然

弄明白了。

19.My _______of this weekend's activity is going out with some good friends.
   A. idea    B. opinion    C. mind    D. thought
【解 析】 idea:主意,打算,构思,opinion:观点,mind:头脑,thought:思考,想法。


20. I am sure David will be able to find the library he has a pretty good_______of direction.
   A. idea                     B. feeling
   C. experience               D. sence
答案:D  指导:haveasenseof"有……的感觉(能力)”。

21. Bill was doing a lot of physical exercise to build up his_______.
   A. ability                  B. force
   C. strength                 D. mind
答案:C  指导:ablity侧重指“能力”;force侧重指“打击力,爆炸力,武力”,strength侧重体力;mind指“脑力,智力”。显然,C项与前面的physical,exelcise最为搭配。

22. She is in a poor_______ of health, which worries her mother much.
    A. position                B. situation
C. state                   D. condition
答案: C  指导:据题意inastate为状态,指身体状态。

23. Mr. Barrette doesn't think that all bad language should be allowed. In his opinion, there are_______that should be  kept up.
    A. degrees                 B. levels
    C. limits                  D. standards
答案: D  指导:根据题意:在他看来,应该有标准。A项是程度,B 项是水平,C项为限制,D为标准。

24. The village is far away from here indeed.
      It's_______walk.
      A. a four hour        B. a four hour's
      C. a four-hours       D. a four hours'
命题目的与解题技巧:该题考查名词所有格作定语。
【解 析】冠词、数词、量词和连用有两种形式:一种是:a+数词+量词的名词所有格+名词,如果数词大于“1”,量词要用复数形式。如 a four mile's journey: 另一种是:a four-mile .所以答案为D.
【答 案】  D

25.It took us quite a long time to get there, It was______ journey.
      A. three-hour         B. a three hour C. a three-hour       D. three hours
答案:C  指导:joumey为可数名词。复合形容词的构成中hour 应为单数形式,所以选C同义词组还有threehours的表示方法。注意这种合成形容词只作主语。

26.The______ is just around the corner and  you won't miss it.
      A. bicycle's shop      B. bicycle shop
C. bicycles shop       D. bicycle's shop
答案:B  指导:本题考查名词作定语。本句的意思是“自行车商店在拐弯处”。自行车商店应该是B.

27.The little girl asked her mother to buy her a nice pair of______, so her mother went to some ______stores.
      A. shoes; shoes        B. shoes; shoe  C. shoe; shoes         D. shoe;shoe
答案:B  指导:由于受some的影响,容易误选A。本题主要考查名词作定语的用法。名词作定语需用单数形式。如:radio programs电台节目,computer shops电脑店,girl friedns女朋友。

28.If you are not yet______,you are forbidden to visit this site.
      A. eighteen years      B. at age of eighteen C. eighteen-year-old    D. eighteen years of age
命题目的与解题技巧:本题考查名词作主语。
【解 析】注意年龄的几种表示:at the age of eighteen, eighteen years old, eighteen years of age, 而 eighteen-year-old 为合成定语形容词。
【答 案】 D

29. His behavior at the party last night seemed rather______. Many of us were quite surprised.
      A. out of practice      B. out of place
C. out of politeness    D. out of pity
答案:B  指导:outofplace未在应该的位置,不适当:outofprac rice(变得)荒疏:outofpity出于同情;outofpoliteness出于礼貌。


30.--Carry your______ with you, your money, jewelry, camera and so on.
  --OK. Thank you for reminding me.
       A. valuables            B. suitcases C. gifts                D. bags
答案:A  指导:valuable作名词时,常用作复数,尤指小但很值钱的东西(如黄金、宝石等贵重物品)。


 

更多的测试

更多测试

测试

欢迎noun1 参加名词语意测试,你要在15分钟内完成20道语法选择题。并在测试后把成绩报告给导师。

姓名
1.Poetry written from the__________of the urban youth tends to reveal their anxiety over a lack of sense of belonging.
2.Carbon dioxide,which makes a _____________ between us and the sun,prevents heat from getting out of the atmosphere easily,so the earth is becoming warmer.
3.Whenever I made mistakes,the teacher pointed them out with___________.
4.While she was in Paris,she developed a___________for fine art.
5.As the world’s population continues to grow,the________ of food becomes more and more of a concern.
6.The accident caused some___________to my car,but it’s nothing serious.
7.Your _______  as a student will be excellent if you develop a habit of reflecting on how you learn.
8.My first________of him was that he was a kind and thoughtful young man.
9.—Why do you choose to work in an international travel agency?
—Well,you know,English is my__________.So it is my best choice.
10.You’d better write down the phone number of that restaurant for future_______.
11. The officer insisted that Michael did not follow the correct _________ in applying for a visa.
12.The Harry Potter books are quite popular;they are in great_____________ in this city.
13.There’s a ___________ in our office that when it’s somebody’s birthday,they bring in a cake for us all to share.
14.The lack of eco-friendly habits among the public is thought to be a major _____ of global climate change
15.Anyway,I can’t cheat him — it’s against all my __________.
16.The school advisers help you talk through your problems but they don’t give you any direct ___________ .
17.This restaurant has become popular for its wide __________ of foods that suit all tastes and pockets.
18.The World Health Organization gave a warning to the public without any __________ when the virus of H1N1 hit Mexico in April,2009.
19.With inspiration from other food cultures,American food culture can take a ________ for the better.
20.You are working too hard.You’d better keep a _________ between work and relaxation.


欢迎参加语法 noun2 测试, 你要在15分钟内完成20道语法选择题

姓名
1.We can never expect ________bluer sky unless we create________ less polluted world.
2.While she was in Paris,she developed a________for fine art.
3.As the world’s population continues to grow,the________of food becomes more and more of a concern.
4.The accident caused some________to my car,but it’s nothing serious.
5.With inspiration from other food cultures,American food culture can take a________for the better.
6.You are working too hard.You’d better keep a________between work and relaxation.
7.Being able to afford________drink would be________comfort in those tough times.
8. Mo Yan,a most widely-read writer,takes a complete new________to describing China’s rural and folk culture.
9.—What does PM 2.5 mean?
—It’s a professional ________indicating the condition of air pollution.
10.I hope the government will take more strict________against the smog that affected several big cities last winter.
11.The boy promised to his teacher,“As to the lessons to be missed during my________,I’ll try to make them up as soon as I get back from leave.”
12.—I always feel like I’m out of________.
—I’m not surprised.You’d better try to lose some weight.
13.(We’d better discuss everything _______ before we work out the plan.
14.Always remember to put such dangerous things as knives out of children’s    ______.
15.James took the magazines off the little table to make________ for the television.
16.Last year the number of students who graduated with a driving licence reached 200,000,a(n) ______ of 40,000 per year.
17.The system has been designed to give students quick and easy________ to the digital resources of the library.
18.Either you or the headmaster ________ the prizes to these gifted students at the meeting.
19.To little Mike's surprise, lying on the desk ________ some of his favourite toy cars he had longed for.
20.You are working too hard.You’d better keep a _________ between work and relaxation.
20.Not only John and Tom but also their sister, Mary, ________ great interest in the piano lessons.


欢迎参加语法 noun3 测试, 你要在15分钟内完成20道语法选择题

姓名
1.With inspiration from other food cultures,American food culture can take a________for the better.
2.Poetry written from the________of the urban youth tends to reveal their anxiety over a lack of sense of belonging.
3.The accident caused some________to my car,but it’s nothing serious.
4.While she was in Paris,she developed a ________for fine art.
5.As the world’s population continues to grow,the ________ of food becomes more and more of a concern.
6.My first ________ of him was that he was a kind and thoughtful young man.
7.—Can I help you with it?
—I appreciate your________,but I can manage it myself.
8.Your________as a student will be excellent if you develop a habit of reflecting on how you learn.
9.—Why do you choose to work in an international travel agency?
—Well,you know,English is my ________.So it is my best choice.
10.You are working too hard.You’d better keep a________between work and relaxation.
11.You’d better write down the phone number of that restaurant for future________.
12.It is important to have your eyes examined regularly to check for any sign of eye disease that may not have any ________.
13.The officer insisted that Michael did not follow the correct ________ in applying for a visa.
14.He will come to understand your efforts sooner or later.It’s just a matter of ________.
15.“Tommy,run!Be quick!The house is on fire!” the mother shouted,with ________ clearly in her voice.
16.Giving up my job to go back to full-time education was a big ________,but now I know it was the best decision I ever made. (2011·湖北,22)
17.Always remember to put such dangerous things as knives out of children’s ________.
18.There’s a ________ in our office that when it’s somebody’s birthday,they bring in a cake for us all to share. (2011·山东,34)
19.Teachers have to constantly update their knowledge in order to maintain their professional________.
20.Not only John and Tom but also their sister, Mary, ________ great interest in the piano lessons.
20.Anyway,I can’t cheat him—it’s against all my________.


第四部分:学习材料

名词是人,地方,动物,东西或抽象概念的名称。
例如人的名称:Anita, 地方:forest,city,动物:elephant,东西:phone.注意:抽象概念的名称也是名词。例如:friendship 友谊

 

名词的种类
名词分为专有名词和普通名词
专有名词: 表示具体的人,事物,地点或机构的专有名称。给一个人,地方,东西等专门起的名字。例如: Mark, London,France法兰西, Ferrari.China 中国
普通名词: 表示某些人,某类事物,某种物质或抽象概念的名称。例如:teacher 老师 tea 茶  reform 改革
普通名词又可进一步分为四类
1) 个体名称: 表示单个的人和事物。
Baby, Tree, flowers,等可以一个个点的。
2) 集体名称: 表示一群人或一些事物的名称。
army 军队 team队  people 人们  family 家庭 
3) 物质名词:表示物质或不具备确定形状和大小的个体的物质。
glass, wheat,fire 火  steel 钢  air 空气  water 水  milk 牛奶
4)抽象名词:表示动作,状态,品质或其他抽象概念。
labour 劳动  health 健康  life 生活   friendship友情   patience耐力



 

名词的用途
名词在句中作主语, 宾语,介词宾语,宾语补助语,表语以及名词短语作状语。
名词的主要作用是作为主语,宾语(表语)
其他作用可以是修饰名词,或动词的对象
我们从句子的基本结构:主语+谓语+宾语说起。这个图是所有语法的基础。
名词第一个用途作为主语。例如:Tom speaks English. 名词Tom是主语
名词第二个用途作为宾语。例如:Tom speaks English.名词English作为宾语
名词第三个用途可以修饰名词。例如:book store, Tom's book
名词第四个用途是作为动词使用的对象:例如:Proud of my brother


名词又可分为可数名词和不可数名词。
可数名词有单,复数之分,表示一个或多个。
可数名词是你可以一个一个点的:
象:人,mon,dad, teacher
可以一个个点的食物:例如:five apples, one tomato, four bananas
东西一般也可以一个个点:a book 一本书  two books 两本书 ,car, football
动物和人一样也可以一个个点:cats, a sheep.....
当你用可数名词时,记得用当单数是用a/an,复数时加S
不可数名词:不分单,复数;抽象名词, 物质名词和专有名词一般是不可数名词。
液体和气体都是不可数的名词:例如:tea, coffee, water, smoke
要切开吃和小到难一个个点的食物是不可数的名词:例如:bread, cheese, rice,noodle
还有抽象概念象:anger, friendship,或一个种类的名称。furniture.

 

可数名词:
有单数和复数两种形式。指一个人或一件事物时,用单数形式;指两个或多个人或事物时用复数形式。名词由单数形式变成复数形式的规则如下:
可数名词复数的规则变化:
1. 一般的名词词尾直接加-s 。如:
book → books room → rooms pear→pears
house → houses day → days song→songs
读音:1.清辅音后读/s/;  map-maps
   2.浊辅音和元音后读 /z/  bag-bags
2. 以s, x, ch, sh结尾的名词,在词尾加-es 。如:
bus → buses box → boxes
watch → watches dish → dishes
读音: 读 /iz/
3. 以"辅音字母+y"结尾的名词,要先将y改为i再加-es。如:
city → cities body → bodies story→stories
factory → factories
4. 以o结尾的名词,通常有生命的加es无生命的加s。如:
Negroes and heroes like eating tomatoes and potatoes.黑人英雄爱吃土豆西红柿。
无生命:piano→ pianos radio→radios
有生命:potato→potatoes
5.以f 或fe 结尾的名词,要将f或fe改为v再加-es。如:
half → halves leaf → leaves
knife → knives wife → wives
可数名词复数的不规则变化:
男人女人a变e, man→men woman→women
鹅足牙oo变ee, goose→geese foot→feet tooth→teeth
老鼠虱子也好记,ous变ic, mouse→mice louse→lice
孩子加上ren,鱼鹿绵羊不用变。 child→children fish→fish deer→deer sheep→sheep
名词复数的不规则变化:
1.集体名词,以单数形式出现,但实为复数。
如: people police cattle 等本身就是复数,不能说 a people,a police,a cattle,但可以说a person,a policeman,a head of cattle,the English,the British,the French,the Chinese,the Japanese,the Swiss 等名词,表示国民总称时,作复数用。
   如: The Chinese are industries and brave. 中国人民是勤劳勇敢的。
2.以s结尾,仍为单数的名词,如:
   a. maths,politics,physics等学科名词,为不可数名词,是单数。
   b. news 是不可数名词。
     c. the United States,the United Nations 应视为单数。
     d. 以复数形式出现的书名,剧名,报纸,杂志名,也可视为单数。
     "The Arabian Nights" is a very interesting story-book.
3. 表示由两部分构成的东西,如:glasses (眼镜) trousers, clothes
  若表达具体数目,要借助数量词 pair(对,双); suit(套); a pair of glasses; two pairs of trousers
4. 另外还有一些名词,其复数形式有时可表示特别意思,如:goods货物,waters水域,fishes(各种)鱼

 

不可数名词的数
不可数名词不能用a/an。不可数名词没有复数,所以不能加S
一般我们用容器或重量等表示不可数名词的分量。例如a bottle of milk, a glass of water.
不可数名词量的表示
1)物质名词
  a. 当物质名词转化为个体名词时。
    比较: Cake is a kind of food. 蛋糕是一种食物。 (不可数)
       These cakes are sweet. 这些蛋糕很好吃。 (可数)
  b. 当物质名词表示该物质的种类时,名词可数。
   This factory produces steel. (不可数)
   We need various steels. (可数)
  c. 当物质名词表示份数时,可数。
   Our country is famous for tea.
   我国因茶叶而闻名。
   Two teas, please.
   请来两杯茶。

2) 抽象名词有时也可数。
  four freedoms 四大自由
  the four modernizations四个现代化
  物质名词和抽象名词可以借助单位词表一定的数量。
  如:
  a glass of water 一杯水 
  a piece of advice 一条建议

定语名词的复数
名词作定语一般用单数,但也有以下例外。
 1) 用复数作定语。
   如:sports meeting 运动会
     students reading-room 学生阅览室 
     talks table 谈判桌 
     the foreign languages department 外语系
 2) man, woman, gentleman等作定语时,其单复数以所修饰的名词的单复数而定。
   如:men workers  women teachers  
     gentlemen officials
 3) 有些原有s结尾的名词,作定语时,s保留。
   如:goods train (货车)
     arms produce 武器生产
     customs papers 海关文件
     clothes brush衣刷
 4) 数词+名词作定语时,这个名词一般保留单数形式。
   如:two-dozen eggs 两打/(二十四个鸡蛋) 
     a ten-mile walk 十里路 
     two-hundred trees 两百棵树
     a five-year plan. 一个五年计划
   个别的有用复数作定语的,如: a seven-years child

 

名词所有格
如果我们要表达什么人或东西的什么,我们可以用's 或of 表示。
什么人的什么,可以用's,例如: Tom's book. Tom's brother
什么东西的什么,我们一般用of. 例如: The door of the room.
如果这个人前面有代词等象 my father, 我们可以用of 例如:A friend of my father.
在英语中有些名词可以加"'s"来表示所有关系,带这种词尾的名词形式称为该名词的所有格,如:a teacher's book。名词所有格的规则如下:
 1) 单数名词词尾加"'s",复数名词词尾没有s,也要加"'s",如the boy's bag 男孩的书包,men's room 男厕所。
 2) 若名词已有复数词尾-s ,只加"'",如:the workers' struggle 工人的斗争。
 3) 凡不能加"'s"的名词,都可以用"名词+of +名词"的结构来表示所有关系,如:the title of the song 歌的名字。
 4) 在表示店铺或教堂的名字或某人的家时,名词所有格的后面常常不出现它所修饰的名词,如:the barber's 理发店。
 5) 如果两个名词并列,并且分别有's,则表示"分别有";只有一个's,则表示'共有'。
   如:John's and Mary's room(两间)  John and Mary's room(一间)
 6) 复合名词或短语,'s 加在最后一个词的词尾。
   如:a month or two's absence


不同国家的人的单复数
  
名称   总称(谓语用复数) 一个人   两个人     
中国人  the Chinese   a Chinese  two Chinese
瑞士人  the Swiss    a Swiss   two Swiss
澳大利亚人 the Australians  an Australian two Australians         
俄国人  the Russians  a Russian  two Russians
意大利人 the Italians  an Italian  two Italians
希腊人  the Greek    a Greek   two Greeks
法国人  the French   a Frenchman two Frenchmen
日本人  the Japanese  a Japanese  two Japanese

 

注意事项
1.主语和谓语基本保持单复数的一致,即:主语是可数名词单数或不可数名词时,谓语动词用单数形式:The computer was a great invention.(计算机是个了不起的发明)The water in the glass is very cold.(玻璃杯里的水很冷)
2. 可数记得单复数。不可数只能用单数
3.集体名词(family,class,team,group,row,police,school……)做句子主语时,
如果表示整体概念,则谓语用单数形式,如:His family is large.(她的家人很多)
如果表示其中的所有成员时,则谓语用复数形式,如:His family are all teachers(她的家人都是老师)

 

总结

总结
名词在句中作主语, 宾语,介词宾语,宾语补助语,表语以及名词短语作状语。
名词的主要作用是作为主语,宾语(表语)
其他作用可以是修饰名词,或动词的对象
我们从句子的基本结构:主语+谓语+宾语说起。这个图是所有语法的基础。
名词第一个用途作为主语。例如:Tom speaks English. 名词Tom是主语
名词第二个用途作为宾语。例如:Tom speaks English.名词English作为宾语
名词第三个用途可以修饰名词。例如:book store, Tom's book
词又可分为可数名词和不可数名词。
可数名词有单,复数之分,表示一个或多个。
名词变复数的方法:
1. 一般的名词词尾直接加-s
2. 以s, x, ch, sh结尾的名词,在词尾加-es
3. f/fe/oo/y的变法
4.可数名词复数的不规则变化

 

第五部分:附加材料

关于名词的课程录像。 http://eng90.com/gv1/

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